Fato do Príncipe: entenda o que é como e identificar sua aplicação prática

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Via @consultor_juridico | A pandemia da Covid-19 testou a capacidade do sistema jurídico para responder célere e adequadamente problemas repentinos de dimensões inimaginadas. Isso induz uma corrida por respostas e soluções criativas que, por vezes, atropelam conhecimentos sedimentados e trazem o risco de ocasionar mais danos que benefícios.

Nessa maratona, em meio a formulações de remédios contra os efeitos economicamente restritivos derivados das medidas de combate à pandemia, a teoria do fato do príncipe ganhou destaque acentuado em debates de Direito Tributário e Direito do Trabalho.

No dia 27 de março de 2020, numa guerra federativa, o presidente da República fez alusão ao artigo 486 da CLT, que permitiria aplicar o fato do príncipe para responsabilizar estados e municípios pelas verbas rescisórias dos trabalhadores demitidos em decorrência das restrições de exercício de atividades econômicas durante a quarentena. Afinal, medidas limitativas do comércio e da indústria adotadas pelos entes federativos subnacionais impossibilitariam ou dificultariam a continuação das atividades econômicas e dariam causa a demissões.

Em outra dimensão, mas também relacionada às medidas tomadas por estados e municípios, inúmeras empresas têm obtido liminares para prorrogar o vencimento de tributos. Unidas, a Fiesp e a Ciesp impetraram mandado de segurança coletivo para suspender o recolhimento dos tributos estaduais por todas as empresas do estado de são Paulo. Tais pleitos sustentam-se sob a alegada ocorrência de fato do príncipe, uma vez que um ato estatal teria reduzido a atividade empresarial de forma abrupta.

Num caso e noutro, nada mais há que uma analogia ao fato do príncipe, cuja origem no direito público mirou relações contratuais entre a Administração Pública e particulares. Nesse âmbito, o fato consiste no exercício legítimo dos poderes de autoridade fora da relação contratual, mas de modo a afetar condições e obrigações de ajustes administrativos, dando causa ao reequilíbrio econômico-financeiro.

É indubitável que relações jurídicas entre trabalhador e empregador no mercado ou entre o Fisco e os contribuintes não configuram relações jurídico-administrativas. Quando determinada ação estatal gera efeitos sobre aquelas relações, não resulta alteração de contratação pública. Isso significa que, de pronto, a aplicação da teoria do fato do príncipe poderia ser afastada. Essa conclusão, porém, é apressada. Partindo-se dos fundamentos da teoria do fato do príncipe, a despeito de inexistir relação contratual administrativa, seria possível sustentar a sua aplicação mutatis mutandi para outros tipos de relação jurídica envolvendo, de um lado, o estado com seus poderes soberanos, inclusive de polícia e regulação, e os particulares, de outro. Vejamos.

A vida em sociedade pressupõe a assunção, por cada um de seus membros, de encargos sociais — como o pagamento de tributos e o respeito a regras gerais. Decorre do princípio estruturante da igualdade (artigo 5º, caput, da Constituição) que esses encargos sociais se distribuam de forma igualitária entre os membros da sociedade.[1] Voltando-se ao caso concreto, é preciso ter em mente que a pandemia impôs novos desafios ao Estado brasileiro e as medidas de contenção — necessárias à proteção da saúde coletiva — ocasionaram um aumento dos encargos públicos suportados pelos atores sociais e econômicos. Quando se embalam essas medidas como fato do príncipe, busca-se simplesmente dizer que há uma perturbação do anterior equilíbrio dos encargos públicos. Portanto, fundado no princípio da igualdade, seria possível transportar a teoria originária dos contratos administrativos para os âmbitos trabalhista e tributário como uma forma de corrigir desproporções na divisão de encargos entre os membros da sociedade e do mercado.

Esse transporte nos parece viável e possível por medida de justiça. Entretanto, necessita respeitar limites e requisitos. Nem toda atuação estatal que altere a distribuição dos encargos públicos corresponde a fato do príncipe. O próprio fundamento da igualdade exige reconhecer elementos mínimos para identificar quando surge uma distribuição desigual dos encargos públicos.[2] Caso contrário, haveria a socialização de todos os encargos sociais, desvirtuando a própria ideia de sociedade.

Para se transportar o fato do príncipe para outros contextos é preciso, antes de mais nada, fixar sua definição como qualquer atuação lícita[3] tomada pelo Estado com base em seus poderes de autoridade — inclusive a criação de medidas limitativas da economia por lei — e que gere efeitos sobre os particulares de forma direta, especial e significativa[4], dando-lhe, por medida de justiça, um direito à compensação dos efeitos. Dessa formulação, resulta que o dever de indenizar será atribuído ao Estado somente quando três indagações forem positivamente respondidas.

1) A ação estatal aumenta encargos sociais diretamente? Em outras palavras, é preciso comprovar que há nexo de causalidade direta entre a medida estatal e o aumento dos encargos sociais, ou seja, que o aumento não é mero resultado indireto ou remoto da ação estatal.

2) A ação estatal gera impacto especial para determinada pessoa física ou jurídica em comparação com os efeitos gerados para os demais? O fato do príncipe pressupõe que a atuação administrativa tenha distribuído encargos de forma desigual aos membros da sociedade, que estarão sujeitos a efeitos especiais, ou seja, não gerais. Se os impactos sobre determinada pessoa forem idênticos aos incidentes sobre as demais, a teoria não se aplica.

3) O aumento dos encargos para a pessoa atingida desigualmente é significativo? Não é qualquer aumento de encargos sociais que gera o dever de compensar. Apenas aquele significativo permite reconhecer o fato do príncipe, uma vez que os aumentos insignificantes correspondem a situações normais de distribuição.

A partir desse método, torna-se mais simples examinar as situações concretas das medidas dos entes da federação para o controle da epidemia partir de estratégias de isolamento social. Como é sabido, tais medidas adotadas restringem atividades sociais e econômicas, incluindo a proibição de eventos que concentrem um grande número de pessoas, suspensão de atividades industriais e comerciais consideradas não essenciais, restrição do uso de meios de transporte etc. Resta indagar: essas medidas caracterizam fato do príncipe?

Não há dúvidas de que a situação fática se encaixa de início à definição teórica. As medidas estatais restritivas são lícitas e, no geral, estão de acordo não apenas com a legislação que as autoriza, mas com recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Tampouco há dúvidas de que elas elevam encargos sociais e geram impactos diretos a certos atores. Ao suspender atividades econômicas não essenciais, elas têm efeito direto sobre as empresas, pois freiam cadeias de produção e circulação com o propósito legítimo de combater a pandemia.

A dificuldade reside, porém, na segunda pergunta, relativa à especialidade do aumento dos encargos sociais. Como a restrição de atividades econômicas não essenciais abrange a totalidade das empresas e entidades em atividades não essenciais, nota-se a princípio uma distribuição igualitária do aumento dos encargos sociais para se evitar o colapso do sistema de saúde. Para se configurar o fato do príncipe, os agentes econômicos, isolada ou coletivamente, deverão ser capazes de demonstrar de forma concreta que sofreram danos desproporcionais, assumindo de maneira desigual o aumento do encargo social. Mais que isso, precisarão demonstrar que os impactos negativos foram significativos.

Sem essas comprovações, a aplicação da teoria decerto gerou mais prejuízos que benefícios. O reconhecimento casuístico de fato do príncipe fora de situações de dano especial e significativo apenas aprofundará desigualdades e ampliará prejuízos coletivos, fazendo, inclusive, que não apenas os cidadãos, mas também empresas não beneficiadas por liminares suportem mediatamente indenizações estatais a agentes econômicos que, na “loteria” judicial, logrem decisões favoráveis.

Mais do que nunca, foi preciso que o Judiciário estivesse atento, definisse seus métodos decisórios com um mínimo de homogeneidade, a construir uma verdadeira política pública de controle, racional e planejada, para impedir que a sanha por soluções excessivamente rápidas e criativas viesse a agravar ainda mais o inevitável mal-estar social e econômico que suportamos.

(*)Esta coluna é produzida com a colaboração dos programas de pós-graduação em Direito do Brasil e destina-se a publicar materiais de divulgação de pesquisas ou estudos relacionados à pandemia do Coronavírus (Covid-19).

[1] CANOTILHO, J. J. Gomes. Direito Constitucional e Teoria da Constituição, 7ª ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2003, p. 431.

[2] PINTO, Cláudia de Moura Alves Saavedra. O facto do príncipe e os contratos administrativos. Coimbra: Almedina, 2012, p. 135 e ss.

[3] Fato do príncipe não pode ser reconhecido perante atuações ilícitas da Administração Pública, uma vez que a consequência jurídica para a atuação ilícita é a anulação dos seus efeitos, retornando à situação anterior. Fato do príncipe diz respeito ao aumento lícito de encargos sociais, que precisam, por conta de suas características específicas do caso concreto, serem compensadas.

[4] GASIOLA, Gustavo Gil. O fato do príncipe no sistema de tutela dos contratos administrativos. RDDA, v. 1, n. 1, 2014, p. 73.

Por Gustavo Gil Gasiola e Thiago Marrara
Fonte: @consultor_juridico

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